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Anh Ngữ Sinh Động bài 334


Dynamic English Program Graphic

Dynamic English Program Graphic

Ðây là chương trình Anh Ngữ sinh động bài 334. Phạm Văn xin kính chào quí vị thính giả.

Trong bài học hôm nay ta làm bài tập để ôn về cách dùng những câu thuật lại thường gọi là Indirect Speech hay Reported Speech.

Phân biệt:

Direct speech là lời thuật lại nguyên văn không thêm bớt, thường viết trong ngoặc kép.

Khi nào ta dùng Indirect Speech hay Reported Speech?

Dùng Reported Speech khi viết bài thường thuật của phóng viên toà báo, hay khi kể một chuyện mình đã chứng kiến hay nói lại điều suy nghĩ của một người khác.

Direct speech:
He said: “I want to go home.”
Indirect speech:
He said that he wanted to go home.
Direct:
She said: “What do you want?”
Indirect:
She asked me what I wanted.
Direct:
I thought: “Does he really mean it?”
“Anh ta có chủ ý nói vậy không?”
Indirect:
I wondered whether he really meant it.
Tôi tự hỏi không biết anh ta có thật chủ ý nói vậy không.
Direct: Bill: I don’t like this party. I want to go home now. Bill: “Tôi không thích buổi tiệc này. Tôi muốn về nhà bây giờ.”
Indirect:
Peter reported: Bill said he did not like the party, and he wanted to go home.
Peter thuật lại: Bill nói anh không thích buổi tiệc,
và anh muốn về nhà.

Note 1
=>drop the word now. Bỏ chữ now.
Ðổi tên anh Bill thành he. A change of speaker may mean a change of pronoun.
Ðổi here thành there, this thành that, these thành those.
Next đổi thành the following.

Direct:
He said: “I’ll be back next week.”
Anh ta nói: « Tuần tới tôi sẽ trở lại. »
Indirect:
He said that he would he back the following week.
Anh ta nói tuần sau anh sẽ trở lại.
Direct:
“Ann got her driving license last Tuesday.”
Cô Ann mới có bằng lái xe thứ ba vừa qua.
Indirect:
Ann said she got her driving license the Tuesday before.
Cô Ann nói cô đã nhận bằng lái xe thứ ba tuần trước.

Note 2:

Last Tuesday=> the Tuesday before

Direct:
“We’ll be here tomorrow.”
Ngày mai chúng tôi sẽ tới đây.
Indirect:
They said that they would be there the next day.
Họ nói hôm sau họ sẽ đến đó.

Tomorrow=>the next day.

Note 3:

=>change of tense

Bill: (last Saturday) “I don’t like the party.”
(Today, a week later): Bill said that he didn’t like the party.

I=>he
Don’t like=>didn’t like

Direct: “The exam will be difficult.”
Indirect: They said that the exam would be difficult.

Will=> would.

Direct: “I need help.”
Indirect: He said that he needed help.

=>simple present need=>simple past needed

Direct: “My English is getting better.”
Indirect: He said his English was getting better.

=>present progressive is getting=> past progressive was getting.

Direct: “This has been a wonderful holiday.”
Indirect: She told us that it had been a wonderful holiday.

Nhận xét: Present perfect has been=> past perfect had been
Ðổi this thành it.

Direct: “Ân grew up in Saigon.”
Indirect: Ân said he had grown up in Saigon.

Simple past grew=>past perfect had grown

Direct: “I can speak Chinese.”
Indirect: He said he could speak Chinese.

Can=>could

Direct: “We may come back early.”
Indirect: He said they might come back early.

May=>might

Direct: “I arrived late because my train had been late.”
Indirect: He said that he had arrived late because his train had been late.

Note 4:
Simple past arrived=>past perfect had arrived
Past perfect had been=> no change: had been

Direct:
“I saw your cousin at the grocery store a couple of days ago.”
Indirect:
He told me he had seen my cousin a couple of days before.

Ago=>before

Note 5:
Sau thì hiện tại, tương lai hay hiện tại hoàn tất present perfect, thường giữ nguyên thì ở câu gốc vì không có thay đổi quan trọng về thời gian, because there is no important change of time.

After present, future and present prefect reporting verbs, tenses are usually the same as in the original.
Sau thì hiện tại, tương lai hay hiện tại hoàn tất thì những động từ trong câu tường thuật thường giữ nguyên như động từ ở câu gốc.

If simple present, present perfect or the future is used in the reporting verb (e.g. says), the tense is retained.

Or if the direct speech reports a general truth, keep the present tense. Hay nếu câu gián tiếp tường thuật một sự thực hiển nhiên thì cũng giữ nguyên động từ ở hiện tại.

Direct:
He said: “The test is difficult.”
Indirect:
He says the test is difficult.

Direct:
“She watched TV every day.”
Indirect:
She has said that she watches TV every day.

Direct:
“I don’t want to play any more.”
Indirect:
He says he doesn’t want to play any more

Direct: “We need some help.”
Indirect. I’ll tell her you need some help.

Direct: “Taxes will be raised.”
Indirect: The government has announced that taxes will be raised.
(Không đổi thì trong câu “taxes will be raised”
ở câu reported speech vỉ việc tăng thuế là một sự kiện chắc chắn sẽ xẩy ra).

He proved that the earth goes around the sun.
(Không đổi thì present tense ở reported speech vì là sự thật hiển nhiên)

But: Years ago, the Greeks thought that the sun went around the earth.
Xưa người Hy Lạp tin rằng mặt trời quay vòng quanh trái đất. (Dùng simple past went để nói một điều nhầm lẫn trong quá khứ).
Direct: “How old are you?”

Indirect: Are you deaf? I asked you how old you are.
(Anh điếc à? Tôi đã hỏi anh bao nhiêu tuổi.)

Shall I

Direct: “Shall I be needed tomorrow?”
Ngày mai bạn còn cần tôi không?
Indirect: He wants to know if he will be needed tomorrow.

=>Add whether or if after want to know or ask

Direct: “Shall I carry your bag?”
Bác để cháu xách hộ túi cho bác nhé?
Indirect: He asked the lady if he should carry her bag.

Shall => should

Credit: esl.about.com/od/grammarintermediate/a/reported_speech.htm

Note 6:

Word Order with where and when
Direct:
“Where’s your brother?”
Indirect:
My mother asked me where my brother was (not where was my brother).

Direct: “When are you leaving?”
Chừng nào anh đi?
Indirect:
He wanted to know when I was leaving.

Note 7:

Word order with what, who and which
Có hai cách viết trong indirect speech: When it asks for a subject.

Direct:
Who’s the best player here?
Ai là người chơi giỏi nhất ở đây?

Indirect:
-She asked me who was the best player.
-She asked me who the best player was.

Direct: “What’s the matter?”
-Indirect: She asked me what was the matter.
-She asked me what the matter was.

“Which is my seat?”
-She asked me which was her seat.
-She asked me which her seat was.

=>This does not happen when who/what/which asks for a complement. Ta không bói bằng hai cách khi câu hỏi bắt đầu bằng who, what, hay which theo sau là bổ túc từ complement.

Direct: “What’s the time?” Mấy giờ rồi?
Indirect: She asked me what the time was.

Note 8:

CONDITIONALS: usually unchanged

Direct: “It would be best if we started early.”
Tốt nhất là chúng ta khởi hành sớm.

Indirect:
He said it would be best if they started early.

Ngoại trừ khi ở trong điều kiện giả tưởng, unreal situations:

Direct: “If I had any money, I would buy you a drink.”
(Nếu tôi có tiền thì tôi sẽ đãi bạn uống rượu).
(sư thật là tôi không có tiền)
Indirect:
She said if she had had any money, she would have bought me a drink. (or: she would buy me a drink)
Cô ấy nói nếu cô ấy có tiền thì sẽ mua đãi tôi một ly rượu.

Further Notes

Must=> had to

Direct: “I must go”
Indirect: He said he had to go.

Use infinitive in commands

Direct: “Please leave the room.”
Indirect: He asked me to leave the room.

Tense change (Ðổi thì)

I speak English
He says that he speaks English.
(động từ ở main clause là says (simple present) thì động từ ở subordinate clause cũng ở present là speaks)

He said that he spoke English.
(Ðộng từ ở main clause said ở simple past nên động từ ở subordinate clause cũng ở simple past là spoke)

Note 9:

Avoid shift tense
(Thường tránh đổi thì (tense) trong một câu.

Do not write: He sat down at his desk and begins to write.
Rewritten: He sat down at his desk and began to write.

Nhận xét: He sat down ở simple past nên những động từ tiếp theo trong câu ở past tense.

References

http://www.englishclub.com/grammar/verbs-questions-tag.html

Michael Swan. Practical English Usage. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005, pp. 471+

Vietnamese Explanation

Quí vị vừa học xong bài 334 về cách dùng câu direct speech hay reported speech.
Phạm Văn xin kính chào quí vị thính giả và xin hẹn gặp lại trong một bài học khác.
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