Đường dẫn truy cập

Ðây là chương trình Anh Ngữ sinh động bài 335. Phạm Văn xin kính chào quí vị thính giả.

Trong bài học hôm nay, ta làm thêm bài tập để ôn về cách dùng những câu thuật lại thường gọi là Indirect Speech hay Reported Speech.

A. Review – Ôn

Ta dùng Indirect Speech hay Reported Speech khi thường thuật, hay khi kể một chuyện mình đã chứng kiến, hay nói lại điều người khác nói.

1. Direct speech:
“I want to go home,” he said

Indirect speech:
He said____________________

He said that he wanted to go home.

2. Direct:
She said: “What do you want?”

Indirect:
She asked ________________.
She asked me what I wanted.

=> Nếu câu direct speech là một câu hỏi bắt đầu bởi một interrogative word như what, why, where… thì câu indirect speech lập lại chữ đó, nhưng nhớ phải đổi thứ tự của chủ từ và động từ và thì (tense).

(What do you want?=>what I wanted)

=> Non-interrogative questions, câu không bắt đầu bằng what, where, why, when, như trong yes-no questions, thì ở câu indirect speech dùng whether hay if. Cũng nhớ phải đổi tense.

Direct: Do you like tea?
Indirect: He asked me if I liked tea.

3. Direct:
Bill said: “I don’t like this party. I want to go home now.” Tôi không thích buổi tiệc này. Tôi muốn về nhà bây giờ.

Indirect:
Bill said he did not like the party, and he wanted to go home.
Bill nói anh không thích buổi tiệc,
và anh muốn về nhà.

Note
=> Bỏ chữ now.
Ðổi tên Bill thành he.
Ðổi here thành there, this thành that, these thành those.
Next đổi thành the following.

4. Direct:
He said: “I’ll be back next week.”
Anh ta nói: « Tuần tới tôi sẽ trở lại. »
Indirect:
He said that he would he back the following week.
Anh ta nói tuần sau anh sẽ trở lại.

5. Direct:
“Ann got her driving license last Tuesday.”
Cô Ann mới có bằng lái xe thứ ba vừa qua.

Indirect:
Ann said she got her driving license the Tuesday before.
Cô Ann nói cô đã nhận bằng lái xe thứ ba tuần trước.

Note

Last Tuesday=> the Tuesday before

6. Direct:
“We’ll be here tomorrow.”
Ngày mai chúng tôi sẽ tới đây.
Indirect:
They said that they would be there the next day.
Họ nói hôm sau họ sẽ đến đó.

Note
will=>would
Tomorrow=>the next day.
Here = > there

7. Direct: “The exam will be difficult.”
Indirect:
They said that the exam would be difficult.

Note

Will=> would.

8. Direct: “My English is getting better.”
Indirect: He said his English was getting better.

Note

present progressive is getting=> past progressive was getting.

9. Direct: “I can speak English.”
Indirect: He said he could speak English.

Note

Can=>could
May=>might

10. Direct: “I arrived late because my train had been late.”
Indirect: He said that he had arrived late because his train had been late.

Note

Simple past arrived=>past perfect had arrived.
Past perfect had been=> no change: had been. Past perfect ở indirect speech không thay đổi, vẫn giữ nguyên như ở direct speech.

11. Direct:
He said: “The test is difficult.”
Indirect:
He says the test is difficult.

Note:

Nếu câu indirect bắt đầu bằng says thì giữ nguyên thì ở câu direct. Trong trường hợp câu trên, ta giữ nguyên thì present tense is.

12. Direct:
“I don’t want to play any more.”
Indirect:
He says he doesn’t want to play any more

13. Direct: “Taxes will be raised.”
Indirect: The government has announced that taxes will be raised. Chính phủ ra thông cáo rằng sẽ tăng thuế.
(Không đổi thì trong câu “taxes will be raised” ở câu reported speech vỉ việc tăng thuế là một sự kiện chắc chắn sẽ xẩy ra).

14. He said: “The earth goes around the sun.” (Ông ta nói: Trái đất quay quanh mặt trời.
He proved that the earth goes around the sun.
(Không đổi thì present tense ở reported speech vì câu the earth goes around the sun là sự thật hiển nhiên, dù động từ proved ở simple past).

15. Shall I

Direct: “Shall I carry your bag?”
Bác để cháu xách hộ túi cho bác nhé?

Indirect: He asked the lady if he should carry her bag.

Shall => should

Credit: esl.about.com/od/grammarintermediate/a/reported_speech.htm

Note

Word Order with where and when

16. Direct:
“Where are your sisters?”
Indirect:
My mother asked me where my sisters were (not: where were my sisters). Nhớ: thứ tự các từ ở câu indirect speech là where + subject (my sisters) + verb (were).

Word order with what, who and which
Có hai cách viết trong indirect speech when it asks for a subject.

17. Direct:
Who’s the best student in the class?
Ai là học sinh giỏi nhất trong lớp?

Indirect:
(1)-She asked me who was the best student in the class.
(2)-She asked me who the best student in the class was.

Direct: “What’s the matter?” (Có chuyện gì vậy?
Indirect:
(1) -She asked me what was the matter.
(2) -She asked me what the matter was.

Direct:
“Which is my seat?” (Chiếc ghế nào là ghế ngồi của tôi?)

Indirect:
(1)-She asked me which was her seat.
(2)-She asked me which her seat was.

=>This does not happen when who/what/which asks for a complement. Ta không trả lời bằng hai cách như trên khi câu hỏi bắt đầu bằng who, what, hay which theo sau là bổ túc từ complement.

Direct: “What’s the time?” Mấy giờ rồi?
Indirect: She asked me what the time was.

Further Notes

Must=> had to

18. Direct: “I must go”. (Tôi phải đi).
Indirect: He said he had to go.

Use the infinitive in commands

Direct: “Please leave the room!” (Hãy ra khỏi phòng!)
Indirect: He asked me to leave the room.

(Nhớ là khi đổi từ câu direct speech sang indirect speech thì ở câu indirect speech bỏ exclamation mark !)

Direct:
Please don’t go!” (Xin đừng đi!)
Indirect:
He asked me not to go.

Credits:
http://www.englishclub.com/grammar/verbs-questions-tag.html

Michael Swan. Practical English Usage. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005, pp. 471+

B. Exercises:

Complete the sentences in indirect speech.
  1. Direct:
She speaks English very well.
He says____________.
that she speaks English very well.
  1. Direct:
He said: “I speak and write English very well.”
He said that______.
he spoke and wrote English very well.
  1. Direct:
Why don’t you speak English?
Indirect:
He asked me_­­­­­­­­­________.­­­­­­­­
He asked me why I didn’t speak English.

(Nhớ bỏ chấm hỏi question mark ở câu indirect speech).

4. “Bob, speak louder!” (Bob, hãy nói to lên!)
The teacher told Bob to speak louder.

(Bỏ dấu chấm than exclamation mark ở câu indirect speech)

5. Direct: “Don’t go!”
Indirect: He told her not to go.

6. Direct:
Albany is the capital of New York state. (Thành phố Albany là thủ phủ tiểu bang New York).
Indirect:
Ann says that Albany is the capital of New York state.
(Dùng present tense is khi câu nói diễn tả một sự kiện có thực. No backshift, không đổi thì.

7. Direct:
“When I was having breakfast the telephone suddenly rang”. (Tôi đang ăn sáng thì chuông điện thoại bất chợt reo).
He said that when he was having breakfast, the telephone suddenly rang.
=> No backshift in sentences beginning with when/if. (không đổi thì ở câu bắt đầu bằng when hay if).

9. You must read this book.
He urged me to read that book. (anh ta khuyên tôi nên đọc cuốn sách đó).

=> Use urged or advised for a suggestion.

10. Direct:
Let’s go to see a good movie.
Indirect:
She suggested that we should go to see a good movie.
(She suggested going to see a good movie).
(She suggested that we go to see a good movie. Trong câu này that we go là present subjunctive).
Note: (Có 3 mẫu câu trả lời sau động từ suggest).

11. Direct:
She said: “I saw that movie yesterday.”
Indirect:
She told me that she had seen that movie the day before.
Yesterday=> the day before.

12. Direct:
They said: “We’ve never been here before.”
Họ nói chúng tôi chưa bao giờ tới đây.
Indirect:
They told us that they’d never been there before.

‘ve never been=>’d never been
Present perfect=> past perfect

13. Direct:
She said: “I will have finished painting my room by noon tomorrow.”
(Tôi sẽ sơn xong cái phòng của tôi trước trưa ngày mai.
Indirect:
She told us that she would have finished painting her room by noon the next day.

14. Direct:
“Leave me alone!” (Hãy để tôi yên!)
Indirect:
She told him to leave her alone.
(Nhớ bỏ dấu exclamation mark ở câu indirect speech)

Vietnamese Explanation

Quí vị vừa học xong bài 335 về cách dùng câu indirect speech hay reported speech. Phạm Văn xin kính chào quí vị thính giả và xin hẹn gặp lại trong một bài học khác.
XS
SM
MD
LG