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Anh Ngữ sinh động bài 186


Ðây là Chương Trình Anh Ngữ Sinh Ðộng New Dynamic English bài 186. Phạm Văn xin kính chào quí vị thính giả. Trong bài hôm nay, ta học về đề tài quality control, sự kiểm soát phẩm chất của sản phẩm. Có những câu ta cần nghe trước:

Competition put a lot of pressure on American companies.=Sự cạnh tranh đã khiến công ty Mỹ chịu nhiều áp lực. Foreign competition.=cạnh tranh của các hãng sản xuất ngoại quốc. American products.=sản phẩm chế tạo ở Hoa Kỳ. To produce.=sản xuất. Imported toys.= đồ chơi nhập cảng. Imports=đồ nhập cảng. Exports=hàng xuất cảng. Nineteen sixties, 1960s =thập niên từ 1960 đến hết 1969. 1970s=10 năm từ 1970 đến hết 1979. Get more quality for less money.=tốt hơn và rẻ hơn. Low-cost, high-quality products.=sản phẩm giá hạ và có phẩm chất cao. [Chữ low-cost và high-quality là tĩnh từ kép nên có dấu nối ở giữa.] Quality has become very important in the last ten or twenty years because of foreign competition. Vì sự cạnh tranh của các hàng ngoại quốc, phẩm chất trở nên rất quan trọng trong 10 hay 20 năm qua.

Companies had to improve their quality control.=Các công ty phải cải tiến vấn đề kiểm soát phẩm chất.

American companies needed to produce low-cost, high-quality products. Các công ty Hoa Kỳ cần sản xuất sản phẩm giá hạ và có phẩm chất cao. Xin nghe.

Cut 1

Culture Tips.

This Culture Tip answers the question: How important is quality in the U.S.?

Eliz: Welcome once again to “Culture Tips” with Gary Engleton.

Today’s e-mail question is: How important is quality in the US?

Gary: Well, quality has become very important in the last ten or twenty years.

Eliz: Why do you think that’s true?

Gary: One reason is because of foreign competition.

In the past. There were few imports, so most American bought American

products.

But in the nineteen sixties and the nineteen seventies, foreign companies

began exporting more to the U.S.

Many of their products were high-quality and less expensive than American

products.

Eliz: So Americans bought them?

Gary: Yes, they did. For example, imported toys have done very well in the US.

Some imported toys offer good quality at very low prices.

Others provide very high quality at reasonable prices.

Americans realized that that could get more quality for less money.

That put a lot of pressure on American companies. [tạo nhiều áp lực vào công ty Mỹ]

They had to improve their quality control.

Eliz: Quality control?

Gary: Yes, they need to produce low-cost, high-quality products.

These days, American companies have a lot of employees working to improve

quality.

Eliz: Thanks for the excellent information, Gary!

Gary: My pleasure!

MUSIC

Vietnamese Explanation

Trong đoạn tới, ta thực tập. Quí vị nghe một câu rồi tùy ý nghĩa bài học mà trả lời đúng hay sai, True or False. Nhưng trước hết, hãy nghe lại mấy chữ quan trọng: imports=đồ nhập cảng; exports=đồ xuất cảng. Foreign competition=sự canh tranh của ngoại quốc. At reasonable prices=giá phải chăng. Challenge=sự thử thách, thách đố. Meet a challenge, face a challenge, rise to a challenge=đương đầu, đối phó với thử thách hay vấn đề khó khăn. American companies are working on quality control to meet this challenge.=các công Hoa Kỳ đang gắng cải thiện vấn đề kiểm soát phẩm chất để đối phó với thử thách này.

Cut 2

Language Focus: True/False

Larry: True or False.

Eliz: In the past, there was more foreign competition in the United States than there is now.

(ding)
(pause for answer)

Eliz: False. In the past, there were fewer imports, so there was less competition.

(pause)

Eliz: Imported products often offer good quality at reasonable prices.

(ding)
(pause for answer)

Eliz: True. American companies are working on quality control to meet this challenge.

MUSIC

Vietnamese Explanation

Trong phần hỏi lại cho chắc Asking for confirmation, ta nghe bà Jennifer Ashley nói chuyện với ông Marvin Grant thuộc hãng chế tạo dụng cụ điện tử Grant Electronics. Upcoming=sắp tới. Memory=bộ nhớ. Memory chips.=chíp nhớ dùng trong máy điện tử. They are discussing an upcoming purchase of memory chips.=họ đang bàn về vụ mua chip nhớ sắp tới. Next-generation chips=thế hệ chíp nhớ đời mới dùng trong máy điện tử. Generation=thế hệ, đời. Confidential=mật, kín. Most of that information is still confidential.=phần lớn tin tức về chíp nhớ còn giữ mật. Construction=sự xây cất. Have them to us by…gửi cho chúng tôi trước…Twice as fast==nhanh gấp hai…Hold at least 50 percent more information..=chứa tin tức ít nhất là nhiều gấp rưỡi. They will be somewhat more expensive=máy sẽ hơi mắc hơn. Warehouse=kho chứa hàng hóa, sản phẩm.

Cut 3

Business Dialog: Asking for confirmation

Larry: Business Dialog

Jennifer Ashley is talking with Marvin Grant of Grant Electronics, Inc.

They are discussing an upcoming purchase of memory chips.

I’d like some information about the next-generation chips. Chúng tôi cần biết thêm về chip nhớ của máy điện tử thế hệ sắp tới.

Most of that information is still confidential. Phần lớn tin tức về chíp nhớ vẫn còn giữ mật.

Eliz: Let’s listen to today’s Business Dialog.

Jennifer Ashley is talking with Marvin Grant of Grant Electronics, Inc.

They are discussing an upcoming purchase of memory chips.

SFX: phone call

Jennifer: And you can have them to us by this Friday, is that right?

Marvin: Yes, that’s right. They may actually arrive on Thursday.

Jennifer: Excellent! And you plan to build a warehouse in San Jose by the end of the year?

Marvin: Yes, that’s correct. Construction began last week.

Jennifer: I’m glad to hear that.

Now, I’d like some information about the next-generation chips.

Marvin: Well, as I told you before, most of that information is still confidential.

But I can tell you that they’ll be at least twice as fast.

They’ll also hold at least fifty percent more information.

Jennifer: And they’ll cost more, won’t they?

Marvin: Well, of course, they will be somewhat more expensive.

But I think that you’ll find the price very reasonable.

Jennifer: That’s good.

MUSIC

Vietnamese Explanation

Trong phần tới, ta nghe và lập lại những câu hỏi cho chắc, như dùng câu is that right? Hay cao giọng ở cuối câu. Thí dụ: You plan to build a warehouse in San Jose by the end of the year? (cao giọng). Hay: You plan to build a warehouse in San Jose by the end of the year, is that right? Hay dùng tag question. Thí dụ: They’ll cost more, won’t they?

Cut 4

Focus on Functions: Asking for confirmation

Larry: Focus on Functions: Asking for confirmation

Larry: Listen and Repeat.

Eliz: You can have them by Friday, is that right?

(pause for repeat)

Larry: Yes, that’s right.

(pause for repeat)

Eliz: You plan to build a warehouse in San Jose by the end of the year?

(pause for repeat)

Larry: Yes, that’s correct.

(pause for repeat)

Eliz: They’ll cost more, won’t they?

(pause for repeat)

Larry: Yes, they will.

(pause for repeat)

MUSIC

Vietnamese Explanation

Trong phần tới, ta nghe Gary mách những cách hỏi lại cho chắc. Cách 1: nói câu mình muốn hỏi rồi cao giọng ở cuối câu, để người nghe trả lời đúng hay sai. Cách 2: đặt một câu rồi tiếp theo bằng câu “Is that right?” có đúng không. Cách 3: dùng câu hỏi láy lại tag question như “isn’t it?” hay “won’t they?” Nhận xét: dùng cách này, ta phải để ý đến động từ và thì trong câu chính để dùng trong tag question. They’ll cost more, won’t they? Câu chính: They will cost more. Câu tag question: won’t they? Lại phải để ý đến chủ từ để dùng đại danh từ trong câu tag question cho đúng. The new chips will cost more, won’t they? Each new chip will hold more information, won’t it? The information about the new chips is confidential, isn’t it? Tóm lại, để cho dễ hơn, ta có thể dùng cách 1 hay cách 2: cao giọng ở cuối câu khẳng định, hay nói câu chính rồi dùng chữ “right?” hay “correct?” và cao giọng ở cuối câu.

Cut 5

Gary’s Tips: Asking for confirmation

Larry: Gary’s Tips.

Gary discusses how to confirm information.

MUSIC

Eliz: Now it’s time for Gary’s Tips with Gary Engleton!

Gary: Hello, Elizabeth! Today I’ll be talking about some ways to confirm information.

One very common way to confirm information is to make a statement, then add a question such as “Is that right?”

We can see this kind of confirmation in today’s Business Dialog.

Jennifer: And you can have them to us by this Friday, is that right?

Marvin: Yes, that’s right. They may actually arrive on Thursday.

Jennifer: Excellent!

Gary: Another way to confirm information is to make a statement, but to raise your voice at the end, as if you were asking a question.

For example, this is a statement: “You plan to build a warehouse.”

This is a confirmation question: “And you plan to build a warehouse?”

Listen how Jennifer uses this kind of confirmation question:

Marvin: Yes, that’s right. They may actually arrive on Thursday.

Jennifer: Excellent! And you plan to build a warehouse in San Jose by the end of the year?

Marvin: Yes, that’s correct. Construction began last week.

Jennifer: I’m glad to hear that.

Gary: One last way to confirm information is to use tag questions, like “isn’t it?” “won’t they?” and so on.

Here’s an example from today’s Business Dialog, using “won’t they?”

Marvin: They’ll also hold at least fifty percent more information.

Jennifer: And they’ll cost more, won’t they?

Marvin: Well, of course, they will be somewhat more expensive.

Gary: As we have said before, in business discussions it’s very important to confirm information.

I hope today’s tips have been useful!

Eliz: Thanks, Gary!

MUSIC

FIB Closing

Eliz: Well, our time is up. Tune in again next time for Functioning in Business. See you then!

MUSIC

Vietnamese Explanation

Quí vị vừa học xong bài 186 trong Chương Trình Anh Ngữ Sinh Ðộng New Dynamic English. Phạm Văn xin kính chào quí vị thính giả và xin hẹn gặp lại trong bài học kế tiếp.

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