Đường dẫn truy cập

Anh Ngữ sinh động bài 97.


Ðây là Chương Trình Anh Ngữ Sinh Ðộng, New Dynamic English, bài 97. Phạm Văn xin kính chào quí vị thính giả. Mở đầu bài học, quí vị nghe Gary trả lời câu hỏi: “Why do Americans state their opinions so strongly?” Tại sao người Mỹ diễn tả ý kiến của mình mạnh bạo như vậy?”
To state=nói, diễn tả.
A statement=một lời nói hay tuyên bố.
Aggressive=bạo (nghĩa trong bài).
Aggressive marketing=quảng cáo tích cực cho sản phẩm của hãng.
The American style seems very aggressive to me=phong cách người Mỹ diễn tả ý kiến có vẻ bạo quá đối với tôi.
For Americans, being direct is not being aggressive; it’s telling the truth=Ðối với người Mỹ, nói thẳng không phải là nói bạo; đó là nói thật.
In my country, people are less direct=ở xứ tôi, người ta không nói thẳng như vậy.
But this direct style may seem aggressive to other people= Nhưng cách nói thẳng này có vẻ là bạo đối với những người khác.
Style=phong cách, lối.
Direct=trực tiếp.
Opinion=ý kiến.
That’s not what I’m saying=That’s not what I mean=Tôi không có ý nói như vậy.
Position=lập trường, quan điểm.
I need to clarify my position=tôi cần nói rõ thêm về lập trường của tôi.
Budget=ngân khoản.
This year’s budget=ngân khoản dành cho năm nay.
Confirming and clarifying are skills which lead to successful negotiations=Biết xác nhận và biết nói rõ thêm là tài khéo dẫn đến các cuộc thương lượng thành công.
To lead/led/led=đưa đến, dẫn đến.

Cut 1

Culture Tips: Opinions

Larry: Culture Tips

Eliz: Welcome once again to “Culture Tips” with Gary Engleton. Today’s e mail question is: “Why do Americans state their opinions so strongly?” “In my country, people are less direct.”
“The American style seems very aggressive to me.”
Gary: That’s a good question. Americans often think that stating their opinions very directly is a good business strategy.
Eliz: Why is that?
Gary: Well, if you say what you mean as clearly as possible, there’s a better chance that people will understand you.
This is especially true if you are doing business with people whose first language is not English.
Eliz: I see. But this direct style may seem aggressive to other people.
Gary: Yes, that can be a problem.
Let me give you an example. Let’s say you want to sell me some products. but I think that they are too expensive. I can use very polite language and say, “We will have to decide whether or not we have enough money for your products.”
This is very polite but is also difficult to understand. Or I can say, “I think that your products are too expensive.” This is a short sentence with simple grammar.
Eliz: I see. The second sentence is more direct. It is easier to understand, but it may sound a bit aggressive.
Gary: Yes. For Americans, being direct is not being aggressive; it’s telling the truth.
Eliz: Interesting point. And now, to tell the truth, we’re out of time. Thank you, Gary, for another interesting culture point.
Gary: My pleasure.

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Vietnamese Explanation

Trong phần tới, quí vị nghe một câu nói, rồi căn cứ vào ý nghĩa bài đã học, trả lời Ðúng hay Sai, True or False. [Sentences=câu. Grammar=văn phạm. Simple=giản dị.]

Cut 2

Language Focus: True/False

Larry: True or False.

Larry: Listen. Is this statement true or false?
Eliz: Stating your opinions directly may make them easier to understand. (ding) (pause for answer)
Eliz: True, especially when the sentences are short and the grammar is simple. (pause)
Eliz: All Americans are aggressive when they give their opinions. (ding) (pause for answer)
Eliz: False. Americans may seem aggressive when they use direct language to state their opinions.

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Vietnamese Explanation

Trong phần Ðàm thoại Thương Mại, Business Dialog sắp tới, quí vị học cách hỏi lại hay nói lại cho rõ ý. Clarifying=làm sáng tỏ vấn đề.
Fay Thomas is negotiating with Tom Johnson, an automobile salesman, to buy some cars for her company’s sales fleet= Fay Thomas đang thương lượng với Tim Johnson, một người bán xe hơi, để mua một đoàn xe hơi dùng cho nhân viên mãi vụ của công ty của bà ta.
Negotiate=thương lượng.
Automobile salesman=người bán xe hơi (nam).
[Saleswoman; cô hay bà bán sản phẩm; ngày nay ta có thể dùng salesperson hay sales rep (rep=representative) thay cho hai từ salesman và saleswoman].
Fleet=đoàn xe. Sales fleet=đoàn xe dùng cho nhân viên mãi vụ của hãng.
I don’t doubt that it’s a good price, but the total amount is still too high=Tôi không nghi ngờ (tôi tin) là giá đó là giá hời, nhưng tổng số giá tiền vẫn còn quá cao.
To doubt=nghi ngờ.
I don’t doubt=I’m certain, I’m sure, I believe.
What I mean is the total amount is more than this year’s budget=Ðiều tôi có ý muốn nói là tổng giá tiền cao hơn ngân khoản năm nay.
Incredibly=(adv.) không thể tin được=unbelievably. (Adj.) incredible.
I think your products are too expensive=tôi nghĩ là sản phẩm của ông quá đắt (mắc).

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Business Dialog: Clarifying

Larry: Business Dialog

Eliz: Let’s listen to today’s Business Dialog.
Fay Thomas is negotiating with Tom Johnson, an automobile salesman, to buy some cars for her company’s sales fleet.

Tom: ... So that means that we could sell you the cars for only $23,000 each.
That’s incredibly cheap, about $5000 cheaper than the usual price.
Fay: Well, Tom, I don’t doubt that it’s a good price, but the total amount is still too high.
Tom: So you’ve decided not to buy our cars?
Fay: No, that’s not what I’m saying. What I mean is that the total amount is more than this year’s budget.
Tom: But you’re still interested in these cars?
Fay: Yes, definitely. Their quality (phẩm chất) is excellent and the price is reasonable. But we might have to buy fewer cars this year.
Tom: And buy the rest in next year’s budget?
Fay: Exactly!

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Vietnamese Explanation

Trong phần tới, ta nghe những câu dùng để hỏi cho rõ ý. So you decided not to buy our cars? Vậy là bà quyết định không mua xe hơi của chúng tôi phải không?
That’s not what I’m saying.=Tôi không có ý nói như vậy. [=That’s not what I mean.]
But you’re still interested in these cars?=nhưng bà vẫn còn muốn mua những xe hơi này chứ?
Yes, definitely=chắc chắn là vậy.

Cut 4

Focus on Functions: Clarifying

Larry: Focus on Functions: Clarifying

Eliz: Now let’s focus on Clarifying.
Larry: Listen and Repeat.
Eliz: So you’ve decided not to buy our cars? (pause for repeat)
Eliz: No, that’s not what I’m saying. (pause for repeat)
Eliz: What I mean is that the total amount is more than this year’s budget. (pause for repeat)
Eliz: But you’re still interested in these cars? (pause for repeat)
Eliz: Yes, definitely. (pause for repeat)

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Vietnamese Explanation

Trong phần Mách Giúp Văn Hoá Gary’s Tips, Gary sẽ chỉ cho ta cách nói rõ thêm ý mình, hay hỏi cho rõ thêm ý người khác.
I don’t doubt that’s a good price=tôi không nghi ngờ (tôi tin) là đó là giá hời.
Good price=giá hời.
To doubt=nghi ngờ.
But the total amount is still too high=nhưng tổng số giá tiền vẫn còn quá cao.
What I mean is the total amount is more than this year’s budget= Ý tôi muốn nói là tổng số giá tiền nhiều hơn ngân sách chi tiêu năm nay của chúng tôi.
Now you’ve rejected the proposal that we use your warehouse for storage space for spare parts. Nay thì bà đã bác bỏ đề nghị là dùng nhà kho để làm chỗ chứa đổ phụ tùng thay thế.
Not entirely. =Không phải hoàn toàn như vậy.

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Gary’s Tips: Larry: Gary’s Tips.

Eliz: Now it’s time for Gary’s Tips with Gary Engleton!
Gary: Hello, Elizabeth! Today I’ll be talking about clarifying. In business discussions, sometimes the other person may misunderstand what you say. It is necessary for you to correct this misunderstanding. You need to clarify your position.

For example, in the Business Dialog, Tom thinks that Fay has decided not to buy his cars:

Fay: Well, Tom, I don’t doubt that it’s a good price, but the total amount is still too high.
Tom: So you’ve decided not to buy our cars?

Gary: In fact, Fay is still interested in buying the cars. She needs to explain her position more clearly. She uses the expression: “What I mean is...” to clarify her idea. Let’s listen:

Tom: So you’ve decided not to buy our cars?
Fay: No, that’s not what I’m saying. What I mean is that the total amount is more than this year’s budget.
Tom: But you’re still interested in these cars?
Fay: Yes, definitely. (pause)

Gary: In Ms. Graham’s conversation with Mr. Blake, she also needs to clarify her position. Mr. Blake thinks that Ms. Graham has rejected his proposal:

Blake: Now you’ve rejected the proposal that we use your warehouse for storage space for spare parts.
Graham: Well, not entirely, Mr. Blake. Let me clarify that a little. Space is limited, and it would depend very much on the quantity of parts, the size, etc.

Gary: Ms. Graham uses the expression “Let me clarify that a little” and then she explains her position more clearly. Confirming and clarifying are skills which lead to successful negotiations.
Thanks for joining us today for Gary’s Tips. We’ll see you again next time!
Eliz: Thanks, Gary!

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Vietnamese Explanation Quí vị vừa học xong bài 97 trong Chương Trình Anh Ngữ Sinh Ðộng. Phạm Văn xin kính chào quí vị thính giả và xin hẹn gặp lại trong bài học kế tiếp.

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