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Anh Ngữ sinh động bài 67.


Ðây là chương trình Anh Ngữ Sinh Ðộng, bài thứ 67. Phạm Văn xin kính chào quí vị thính giả. Bài học này tiếp theo bài trước về chuyện mua người máy tự động. Bà Graham, xếp của ông Epstein, lo không biết hãng International Robotics của ông Blake có kịp giao và ráp máy trước hạn chót là tháng 10 và có dịch vụ sau khi giao hàng không (the October deadline, aftersales service). Sau đó chúng ta học kỹ thêm về cách diễn đạt điều không đồng ý một cách nhã nhặn. Xin nghe mấy chữ sẽ gặp:

Ôn lại: flexible=mềm dẻo, linh động, uyển chuyển.
work out a solution=tìm ra giải pháp=work things out.
comments=lời nhận-định, ý kiến (opinions). Nhận xét: comment=nhấn mạnh vần đầu: comment.

CUT 1

Interview: Epstein
Eliz: So Ms. Graham still had doubts about Mr. Blake’s ability to meet the deadline.
Epstein: Yes, she did.
I knew she was worried that Mr. Blake’s company would not be able to install the robots on time, by the October deadline.
Eliz: But you disagreed.
Epstein: Yes. I was very impressed by the quality of the industrial robots. I knew that Mr. Blake’s company had the best technology. And I saw that Mr. Blake was very flexible. I was sure he could deliver on time.
Eliz: What about aftersales service?
Epstein: Again, I felt that we could work out a solution with Mr. Blake.
Eliz: Thank you very much for being on our show. Your comments have been very interesting.
Epstein: It’s been my pleasure.
Eliz: Let’s take a short break.

MUSIC

Vietnamese Explanation

Trong phần tới, quí vị nghe lại cuộc nói chuyện giữa ông Epstein và bà Graham. Nghe lại mấy câu đã học:
As long as it’s clear to both of you...miễn là hai ông hiểu rõ là...
...that is has to be worked out, and before October, because that’s our deadline... ...rằng (hai ông) phải tìm ra giải pháp, và (phải giao hàng) trước tháng 10, vì đó là hạn chót của chúng ta.
To purchase=mua [nhấn mạnh vần đầu]= to buy.
I understand your reservations=tôi hiểu sự dè dặt của bà.
The technology of their product is really excellent=kỹ thuật của sản phẩm của họ rất tốt.
Let’s discuss it further tomorrow=mai chúng ta lại bàn luận thêm về chuyện này.
Quí vị học thêm thành ngữ=Let’s sleep on it=để tối về suy nghĩ, mai sẽ tính. [Ðây là một cách hoãn quyết định ngay.]

Quí vị nghe một câu hỏi, rồi nghe một mẩu đàm thoại, rồi nghe lại câu hỏi và trả lời khi nghe tiếng chuông. Sau đó nghe câu trả lời đúng.

CUT 2

Language Focus: Questions Based on Dialog
Larry: Questions. Listen to the question.
Eliz: What does Mr. Epstein think about the quality of Mr. Blake’s robots? (short pause)
Larry: Now listen to the dialog.
Graham: Okay. As long as it’s clear to both of you that it has to be worked out, and before October, because that’s our deadline.
Epstein: Well, again, I understand your reservations, Shirley, but again the technology of their product is really excellent. I think we really have to go ahead with this.
Eliz: What does Mr. Epstein think about the quality of Mr. Blake’s robots? (ding)(pause for answer)
Eliz: He thinks the technology of their product is excellent. (short pause)
Larry: Listen to the question.
Eliz: Does Ms. Graham agree to purchase Mr. Blake’s robots? (short pause) Larry: Now listen to the dialog.
Graham: Well, let’s discuss it further tomorrow. All right?
Epstein: Okay. All right. Thank you.
Eliz: Does Ms. Graham agree to purchase Mr. Blake’s robots? (ding)(pause for answer)
Eliz: No, she doesn’t. She says they will discuss it again tomorrow. (short pause)

MUSIC

Vietnamese Explanation

Trong phần tới, Gary chỉ cho ta biết cách bất đồng ý kiến với người xếp của mình. This Culture Tip discusses when it is OK for subordinates to disagree with their bosses in American companies=phần mách giúp văn hoá này bàn về khi nào thì người thuộc-viên có thể bất đồng ý với cấp chỉ huy của họ trong các công ty Hoa Kỳ.
To disagree=bất đồng ý.
A boss=người xếp, cấp chỉ huy, ông/bà chủ.
a subordinate=người dưới quyền, thuộc viên.
an opinion=ý kiến.
a decision=một quyết định (to decide, make a decision).
communicate with bosses=nói với cấp chỉ huy.
Encourage=khuyến khích.
Policy=điều lệ, chính sách, qui luật.
Good bosses want to listen to different opinions and then make a decision=cấp chỉ huy giỏi muốn nghe những ý kiến khác nhau rồi mới quyết định.
After the final decision is made, everyone has to support it, even the people who disagreed with it=sau khi quyết định cuối cùng đã đưa ra thì mọi người, kể cả người bất đồng ý, cũng phải hỗ trợ quyết định ấy.
bad atmosphere=bầu không khí khó chịu.
limits=giới hạn.
To argue=cãi, tranh luận; trình bầy lý lẽ; an argument=một lời lý luận.

CUT 3

Culture Tips: Disagreeing with the Boss Larry: Culture Tips
Sometimes I hear American workers arguing with their bosses. Thỉnh thoảng tôi thấy nhân viên Mỹ lý luận với xếp của họ.
Good bosses want their subordinates to tell them when they are wrong. Những cấp chỉ huy giỏi muốn người dưới quyền cho họ biết khi nào họ nhầm lẫn.
The subordinate can help the boss by keeping him or her from doing something stupid=thuộc cấp có thể giúp cấp chỉ huy tránh khỏi phạm điều thiếu suy xét. [Stupid=dumb=ngu-dại]
Eliz: Hello and welcome again to “Culture Tips”. Gary Engleton, our business language expert, is here with us again.
Gary: Welcome everybody!
Eliz: We have an e-mail question about communicating with bosses.
The question: “Sometimes I hear American workers arguing with their bosses.” “Is this normal in American companies?”
Gary: Well, I would say that good bosses encourage their subordinates to disagree with them.
Eliz: Why is that?
Gary: Well, think about it. Let’s say that the boss is going to make a new policy. A subordinate feels strongly that the new policy will cause big problems. If the subordinate is right, the boss will look very bad.
Eliz: I think that I understand. The subordinate can help the boss by keeping him or her from doing something stupid.
Gary: Yes, that’s it exactly. That’s why good bosses want their subordinates to tell them when they are wrong. Of course, the bosses want to hear strong facts and reasons to support the disagreement. [to support=ủng hộ, hỗ trợ]
Eliz: So they only want intelligent disagreement.
Gary: Yes. Good bosses want to listen to different opinions and then make a decision. But there are limits.
Eliz: What kind of limits?
Gary: Well, after the final decision is made, everyone has to support it, even the people who disagreed with it. If they don’t support it, there will be a really bad atmosphere in the office.
Eliz: So it’s OK to disagree before the decision is made, but afterwards, you have to be quiet.
Gary: Yes.
Eliz: Well, once again we’ve learned a lot. Thanks, Gary!
Gary: My pleasure!

MUSIC

Vietnamese Explanation

Trong phần tới, ta nghe thí dụ về bất đồng ý kiến nhã nhặn giữa Henry và bà xếp Amy về thời biểu của dự án=Henry is talking to Amy about their project schedule.
a day off=nghỉ một ngày. I think we’ve got to give them a couple of days off=tôi nghĩ ta phải cho nhân viên nghỉ đôi ngày.
We’ve got to=we have to=we must=chúng ta phải. I can understand your concern, but the project is almost finished=tôi hiểu rằng ông lo, nhưng dự án sắp xong rồi.

CUT 4

Business Dialog: Disagreeing Politely
Larry: Business Dialog
Eliz: Let’s listen to today’s Business Dialog.
Henry is talking to Amy about their project schedule.
Henry: I’m really worried about the team. They’re working so much that they’re too tired to think clearly. I think we’ve got to give them a couple of days off!
Amy: I can understand your concern, but the project is almost finished. If we can keep everyone working for three or four more days, we’ll be able to complete it on time. Then they can take a break for a day or two.
Henry: I hope you’re right, but I don’t know if they can keep going for three or four more days.
Amy: Henry, I understand what you’re saying, but I think that you’re a bit too worried. They’re stronger than you think, and they know the importance of this deadline. Let’s help them get through it, okay?
Henry: Okay. I’ll do what I can.

MUSIC

Vietnamese Explanation

Trong phần Language Focus, Gary mách cho ta những câu mở đầu để dùng khi bất đồng ý một cách nhã nhặn. Ðó là những câu như..I understand your concern, but...Tôi biết bạn lo, nhưng. I hope you’re right, but.. Tôi hy vọng bạn đúng, nhưng... .I don’t know if they can keep going for three or four days... Tôi không biết họ còn tiếp tục làm thêm ba hay bốn hôm nữa hay không. A bit too worried=hơi lo quá.

CUT 5

Language Focus: Focus on Functions: Disagreeing Politely

Larry: Focus on Functions: Disagreeing Politely.
Eliz: Now let’s focus on Disagreeing Politely. Here are some expressions which will help you disagree politely.
Larry: Listen and repeat.
Eliz: I can understand your concern, but ... (pause for repeat)
Eliz: I can understand your concern, but the project is almost finished. (pause for repeat)
Eliz: I hope you’re right, but ... (pause for repeat)
Eliz: I hope you’re right, but I don’t know if they can keep going. (pause for repeat)
Eliz: I understand what you’re saying, but ... (pause for repeat)
Eliz: I understand what you’re saying, but I think that you’re a bit too worried. (pause for repeat)

MUSIC

Vietnamese Explanation

Trong phần tới, ta nghe Gary bàn thêm về cách tỏ bầy ý kiến bất đồng. Recognize the other person’s feeling=nhận biết cảm nghĩ của người khác. Position=vị trí, lập trường.
Reservations=sự dè dặt.
Too tired to think clearly=mệt quá không còn suy nghĩ minh mẫn được nữa. Ðể ý đến nghĩa KHÔNG trong câu tiếng Anh TOO....TO. Thí dụ: He’s too tired to go any further.=anh ta mệt quá không còn đi thêm được nữa.
Business situations=những hoàn cảnh trong thương rường. Social situations=những hoàn cảnh giao thiệp thông thường (không nghiêm trang, như trong một buổi tiệc giữa bạn è)
Treat people with respect=đối xử với người khác một cách kính trọng.

CUT 6

Gary’s Tips: Disagreeing Politely

Larry: Gary’s Tips
Eliz: Now it’s time for Gary’s Tips with Gary Engleton!
Gary: Hello, Elizabeth. Today I’ll be talking about how to disagree politely.
Eliz: In business, it is sometimes necessary to disagree, even with your boss.
Gary: When you disagree, it’s important to recognize the other person’s feeling. In American business or social situations, it is very impolite to say directly “You’re wrong.” Instead you should use expressions for polite disagreement, as we hear in today’s Business Dialog. It is always a good idea to show that you understand the other person’s position. For example, Amy says to Henry that she can understand his concern.
Henry: I’m really worried about the team. They’re working so much that they’re too tired to think clearly. I think we’ve got to give them a couple of days off!
Amy: I can understand your concern, but the project is almost finished.
Gary: In a similar way, Mr. Epstein, shows that he understands Ms. Graham’s position.
Epstein: Well, again, I understand your reservations, Shirley, but again the technology of their product is really excellent.
Gary: Even if you don’t agree with people, you should let them know that you understand their idea. Here is an example from the Business Dialog.
Amy: Henry, I understand what you’re saying, but I think that you’re a bit too worried.
Gary: If you want to resolve a disagreement and find the best solution, you want to keep communication open. The best way to do this is to treat the other person with respect. Using the expressions we’ve discussed today is one way to show this respect for the other person’s ideas. Thanks for joining us today for Gary’s Tips. We’ll see you again next time.
Eliz: Thanks, Gary.

MUSIC

Eliz: Well, our time is up. Tune in again next time for Functioning in Business. See you then!

Vietnamese Explanation

Quí vị vừa học xong chương trình Anh Ngữ Sinh Ðộng New Dynamic English bài 67. Phạm Văn xin kính chào quí vị thính giả và xin hẹn gặp lại trong bài học kế tiếp.

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